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People want more choices and information than they can process
《100 things every designer need to know about people》
If you stand in any aisle in any retail store in the U.S., you'll be inundated with choices. Whether you're buying candy, cereal, TVs, or jeans, you'll likely have a huge number of items to choose from. Whether it's a retail store or a web site, if you ask people if they'd prefer to choose from a few alternatives of have lots of choices, most people will say they want lots of choices.
Too many choices paralyzes the thought process
Sheena lyengar's book The Art of Choosing (2010) details here research and other's on choice; In graduate school lyengar conducted what is now knows as the "jam" study. lyengar and Mark Lepper (2000) decided to test the theory that people who have too many choices will not choose at all. They set up booths at a busy upscale grocery store and posed as store employees. They alternated the selection on the table. Half of the time there were six choices of fruit jam for people to try and the other half of the time there were twenty-four jars of jam.
Which table had more visitors?
When there were twenty-four jars of jam, 60 percent of the people coming by would stop and taste. When there were six jars of jam only 40 percent of the people would stop and taste. So having more choices was better, right? Not really.
Which table resulted in more tasting?
You might think that people would taste more jam when the table had twenty-four varieties. But they didn't. People stopped at the table, but they only tasted a few varieties whether there were six or twenty-four choices available. People can remember only three or four things at a time (see the chapter "how people remember"); likewise they can decide from among only three or four things at a time.
Which table resulted in more purchases?
The most interesting part of lyengar's study is that 31 percent of the people who stopped at the table with six jars actually made a purchase. But only 3 percent of the people who stopped at the table with twenty-four jars actually made a purchase, So even though more people stopped by, less people purchased. To give you an example of the numbers, if 100 people came by (they actually had more than that in the study, but 100 makes the calculations easy for our purposes), 60 of them would stop and try the jam at the twenty-four-jar table, but only two would make a purchase. Forty people would stop and try the jam at the six-jar table, and twelve of them would actually make a purchase.
Why people can't stop
So if "less is more," then why do people always want more choices? It's part of that dopamine effect. Information is addictive. it's only when people are confident in their decisions that they stop seeking more information.
* Resist the impulse to provide your customers with a large number of choices.
* If you ask people how many options they want, they will almost always say "a lot" or "give me all the options." So if you ask, be prepared to deviate from what they ask for.
* If possible, limit the number of choices to three or four. If you have to offer more options, try to do so in a progressive way. For exmaple, have people choose first from three of four options, and then choose again from a subset.显示全部
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